Environmental change and human health case studies
The main approaches for health impact valuations can be broadly classified into revealed and stated preference techniques. For example, weeks of elevated temperatures increase the prevalence of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis. Aquatic animals also become vulnerable, as the metabolic processes of fish are influenced by temperature, salinity, and oxygen levels.
In the absence of markets, valuation studies can provide policy-makers with the necessary information to acknowledge the contribution of health benefits in the social welfare associated with environmental resources justifying the need for policy intervention to eliminate health effects from environmental hazards.
Climate change and its effects on human health. pdf
The review, however, is restricted to health benefits from air pollution exposure. Results indicate that mean WTP amounts, representing the economic benefits of the revision are of the same order of magnitude as the estimated potential cost increases in average annual household water bills necessary to implement the revision. To address this challenge a number of valuation studies have been conducted in both developing and developed countries applying different methods to capture health benefits from improved environmental quality. Species of the fungus genus Fusarium often live in close association with maize, and during a drought, Fusarium symbionts and A. Only few studies explicitly address health effects of drinking and bathing water quality to inform efficient water resources management policies mainly in high income countries. The choice between these methods should be case-study driven, that is, it should be a function of case-study-specific data availability and socio-economic-political framework. Results from valuation studies adopting a benefit transfer framework to circumvent the time and money demands of conducting an original study are also reported in the literature [ 32 , 33 ]. Meta-analyses can feedback the establishment of value transfer functions to estimate values for policy sites of interest based on properly adjusted information from existing studies on similar sites, study sites [ 16 ].
Given the number of valuation studies, several meta-analyses studies have been recently conducted. Although epidemiological studies have provided evidence of severe morbidity attributed to polluted water the issue has received limited attention in terms of valuation studies.
Effects of climate change on human health
Authors intended to examine whether scientifically established health risks are reflected in WTP for risk reductions in these countries and results confirm that differences in stated WTP between countries reflects the variation in risk levels between those countries. However the Contingent Valuation method is found to be associated with several biases strategic bias, yes-saying bias and embedding effect among others and thus the Choice Experiment method could provide more reliable results [ 57 ]. Tradable permits systems have been implemented in a number of countries for several pollutants and are also intoduced by the Kyoto protocol with the intention of reducing the greenhouse gases emissions in the contracting counties. The respective differences between the two methodologies relate to the way in which the economic values are elicited. Mortality and mobility effects of air pollution have been studied through contingent valuation in the developing world [ 25 — 28 ]. Other methods to value a QALY include time-trade-offs, standard gamble and the visual analogue scale. Taxes, subsidies and quotas are fiscal policy instruments that can internalize the external costs created by natural resources use and if set at the social optimal level can ensure full cost pricing of the environmental goods and services, a necessary condition for sustainability. Consequently, a number of studies have attempted the evaluation of climate change-related health hazards. In the subsequent sections important applications of the valuation techniques that have been conducted to estimate social benefits associated with increased air and water quality as well as climate change aversion are reviewed. Hypothetical bias contends that respondents may be prepared to reveal their true values but are not capable of knowing these values without participating in a market in the first place. Given the public nature of the environmental resources, market data, if available at all, can lead to misleading decisions regarding the significance of resources protection resulting in further resources depletion and degradation. The cost of illness approach fails to capture the full damage of illness, such as psychological suffering and physical pain and should be thus treated as a lower bound of the total value of health risks aversion [ 17 ]. Concluding Remarks Environmental degradation poses a significant threat to human health worldwide.
In the infrastructurally disadvantaged developing world the water contamination problem is even more prominent [ 46 ]. Human capital surveys estimate the productivity loss measured in workdays due to illness.
Environmental change and human health case studies
Hypothetical bias contends that respondents may be prepared to reveal their true values but are not capable of knowing these values without participating in a market in the first place. A review of the literature evaluating the welfare impacts of climate change, including climate variation-related diseases is also presented in Tol [ 5 ]. Regarding health hazards relating to water, although an international consensus has emerged in policy regarding water quality based on growing concern on environmental and health issues there are few valuation studies eliciting public preferences for improved water quality and subsequently reduced illness risk. Distributional, environmental and sustainability effects of the implementation of each instrument should also be considered and valuation studies can be really informative in this respect. These strategies should be able to allocate the aggregate social health risk between socio-economic groups in order to provide efficient, equitable and sustainable coverage against environmental health hazards. Health costs are considered to be incurred due to adverse effects of air pollution on health i. Therefore, QALYs provide an indication of the benefits from a healthcare intervention in terms of health-related quality.
Economic instruments should provide the necessary incentives to all different stakeholders to act in a sustainable way. In a contingent valuation questionnaire respondents are presented with a valuation scenario that describes the changes in the provision of the public good resulting from the policy under evaluation and, in the simplest open-ended format, are asked about their maximum Willingness to Pay for the policy to be implemented.
Authors apply a general equilibrium macroeconomic model to infer costs estimates relating to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders, diarrhoea, malaria, dengue fever and schistosomiasis occurrences through changes in labour productivity and demand for health care.
Urban climate change
Cost of illness studies measure the direct medical costs, nursing care, drugs and indirect opportunity economic costs associated with a disease and estimate the potential savings from the eradication of the disease. Following this approach valuation estimates from existing studies are collected and the determinants of these estimates are examined. The central task of this project was to identify the critical stages at which preventative or corrective actions can be implemented most effectively. Therefore, climate change affects both food yields and food safety. In human capital surveys it is often difficult to assign wages for housework or non-cash labour. Climate change effects mitigation is also of great importance in terms of public health benefits. Mean WTP for an environmental program that would result to reduced health risks avoiding one additional day of the health symptoms ranges from Excessive temperatures and humidity predispose cattle to bacterial syndromes, one of which is mastitis. This approach also values loss of life based on the foregone earnings associated with premature mortality.
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