Human slavery research paper
Unstructured problems acquire a provisional structure via a repressing answer in regard to a prior situation, becoming moderately structured.
Modern slavery research
Also crucial was the continuing UK context of heightened public concern about immigration, linked with anti-EU sentiment and the perceived negative effects of globalisation on many citizens, challenging the major political parties Clarke et al. Of interest is the fact that, in many ways, contemporary business practice has contributed to the very practices that are now in the public eye. Through the processes of policy framing and incrementalism, policy silences can be perpetuated, particularly for problems of a global scope. When combined with the illicit nature of slavery in general, obtaining accurate statistics in relation to the practice is plagued with difficulty Barrientos, ; Gold et al. The two-phase process and prevailing top-down policy direction worked against human rights discourses and victim protection. However, prior to the late s, attention to such activities was not a common feature of policy or academic discourse. Consequently, in the early stages of policy action, responses often took the form of brothel raids. However, the terms of reference associated with the Inquiry are broad, and it can be argued that the business sector requires special consideration separate from the wider issues of forced marriage and sexual slavery. Such an explanation must be sought by examining several factors: how problems are defined, the contextual shaping of problem-setting, and the incremental accretion of actions over time by policy workers.
It is argued that policy remains problematic and continues to marginalise vulnerable groups. Footnotes 1. This then led to a separation of responses to these policy problems, with the remit for sexual exploitation falling to law enforcement units responsible for other sexual offences and the latter being dealt with, if at all, through border control or piecemeal responses by officers experienced in dealing with sexual exploitation.
Scholarly articles on modern day slavery
It is, rather, a product of a policy process characterised by a series of questioning processes and incremental decisions, responses to implementation problems, and affected by influential framing discourses on trafficking and slavery. Unstructured problems acquire a provisional structure via a repressing answer in regard to a prior situation, becoming moderately structured. Among the most prominent was the Raza Plaza garment factory collapse in Bangladesh that resulted in the deaths of over 1, workers Johnson, While policy activity surrounding slavery and trafficking has increased, it would be an error to imagine policymaking has comprised a straightforward, problem-solving response to a defined, empirical problem. The Act defines modern slavery as including human trafficking, slavery, forced labour and domestic servitude. The impacts of Phase One legislation were largely felt by migrant workers through mechanisms to target migration by alternative means. The study aims to seek answers to an estimation of prevalence of bonded labour across Freedom Fund areas: on how prevalence differs among populations with different socio-economic characteristics; on the indicators that unpack whether a family is more resilient or prone to bonded labour such as loans or alcohol consumption ; and on whether the method being used for measuring bonded labour is likely to detect the expected change between baseline and endline. Nonetheless, some have questioned whether a regulatory approach centred on transparency is appropriate. However, providing support for a group of people who are often at the periphery of employment and society has proven difficult, particularly in the context of restrictive migration policy and increasing hostility towards migrant workers. The Act thus includes the potential to shift policy answers to the problem from one which is entirely criminal justice based to one that is shared between criminal justice and corporate responsibility. The legislation constitutes only a partial solution to the various problems brought under the unified slavery banner. This was coupled with building anxiety regarding migration and the perceived expansion of international illegal markets following the collapse of former communist regimes Mai It has increasingly been recognised that non-statutory organisations have an important role in identifying and referring potential victims to official authorities and understanding the way in which victims present their experiences.
This was coupled with building anxiety regarding migration and the perceived expansion of international illegal markets following the collapse of former communist regimes Mai Although employment-driven migration has long been part of the policy context for trafficking, the issues of labour exploitation were essentially unexplored during the first phase.
Selecting suitable policy to combat modern slavery is a dilemma currently facing the Australian Government that has shown commitment to addressing this issue Interdepartmental Committee on Human Trafficking and Slavery, and is in the process of a Parliamentary Inquiry into whether to establish a Modern Slavery Act in Australia.
The Sustainable Development Goals provide a framework that can help business and government strive for a higher standard of sustainability, and with increasing pressure on business to commit to these Goals, it can be argued that eradication of modern slavery is likely to receive increasing attention in future.
Problem structuring does not involve application of a one-time solution, but regularises policy processes as a partial answer. France, Australia 2 and the United States — moving to legislate specifically against modern slavery. It was initiated in the UK as a result of the ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings April illustrating the growing focus on victim protection.
Furthermore, broader questions regarding the legal and socio-political context that facilitates conditions conducive to slavery of any type have yet to be asked or answered within this policy framework. At a more general level, the law enforcement response differs from the human rights view in viewing victims as entirely lacking in agency, as having been exploited against their own free will, whereas a human rights frame would give rights to workers by conceding the possibility of choice in their actions.
The Asylum and Immigration Act contained a provision regarding trafficking for forced labour but was limited in scope. Also crucial was the continuing UK context of heightened public concern about immigration, linked with anti-EU sentiment and the perceived negative effects of globalisation on many citizens, challenging the major political parties Clarke et al.
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