Programme of swadeshi or national education.
Like the Boycott, the Swadeshi as a purely economic measure for the growth of Indian Industry was not an altogether novel idea in India. In practical terms, it included social reforms and campaigns against caste oppression, early marriage, dowry system, consumption of alcohol, etc.
But the Moderates, dominating the Congress at that time, were not willing to go that far. Sometimes, the 'renegade' would suffer material loss and bodily or mental pain. However, there was a certain class of people who supported the partition. Within days, protest meetings were held in small towns all over Bengal.
The blazing flames were looked upon as a special mode of honouring noted public leaders and the bonfires greeting them were regarded as of great value as a means of infusing enthusiasm for Swadeshi.
No less significant was that Swadeshi in Bengal brought into the vortex of politics a class of people-the landed aristocracy—who had hitherto held studiously aloof from the congress or any other political organization.
Effects of swadeshi movement
The people of Bengal took up the challenge. To revive the use of domestic Indian goods and promote self-sufficiency. Tilak, who played a leading role in the spread of the movement outside Bengal, saw in this the ushering in of a new chapter in the history of the national movement. On August 7, , with the passage of Boycott Resolution in a massive meeting held in the Calcutta Town hall, the formal proclamation of Swadeshi Movement was made. To further government interests, the All India Muslim League was propped up in as an anti-Congress front and reactionary elements like Nawab Salimullah of Dacca were encouraged. Among the several forms of struggle thrown up by the movement were: Boycott of foreign good: This included boycott and public burning of foreign cloth, boycott of foreign-made salt or sugar, refusal by priests to ritualize marriages involving exchange of foreign goods, refusal by wahermen to wash foreign clothes. The uttering of Vande Mataram was an indisputable evidence of such sympathy and later it was made illegal to shout Vande Mataram in a public place. These 'Regulation Lathis', as they were called, were freely used by the police in the first instance to drive away the picketers and to disperse crowds, whether rioters or peaceful, if they were supposed to be sympathetic to the picketing volunteers. The Government had resorted to suppressive measures, which included atrocities on students— many of whom were given corporal punishment; ban on public singing of Bande Mataram; restriction on public meetings; prosecution and long imprisonment of swadeshi workers; clashes between the police and the people in many towns; arrests and deportation of leaders; and suppression of freedom of the press.
An attempt was also made to give political expression to economic grievances of the working class by organizing strikes in British- owned concerns such as Eastern Indian Railways.
Secondly, it was regarded as essential for the revival of indigenous industry which being at its infant stage could never grow in the face of free competition with foreign countries which had highly developed industry.
Swadeshi movement pdf
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This was initiated by Mahatma Gandhi. On August 15, , the National Council of Education was set up to organize a system of education—literary, scientific and technical—on national lines and under national control. Later in the day, Surendranath Benerjea and Ananda Mohan Bose addressed huge gatherings perhaps the largest till then under the nationalist banner. Rural markets were controlled bans were put on processions and meetings, leaders were put into confinement without any trial and loyal Muslims were made to go against the recalcitrant Hindus. The partition was expected to weaken what was perceived as the nerve centre of Indian nationalism. The weaving industry in Bengal was a very flourishing one till the British ruined it after they had established their rule over the province in the 18th century. The old apparels of foreign made belonging to sundry people were placed in a heap and then it was set on fire. Mass Participation: Students came out in large numbers to propagate and practise swadeshi, and to take a lead in organizing picketing of shops selling foreign goods. Students who were found guilty of participation were to be disqualified for government jobs or for government scholarships, and disciplinary action—fine, expulsion, arrest, scholarships, etc. Similarly, Swadeshi completely outgrew the original conception of promoting Indian industry. Swadeshi and Social Boycott[ edit ] The main points are: The social boycott was an outcome of economic swadeshi movement.
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